WHAT IS AN ADJECTIVE?

An adjective is a word that qualifies or describes a noun or pronoun or equivalent (Gerund).

For example, let I take a sentence – She is a kind lady. here ‘kind’ represent the quality of the lady, so here kind is used as an adjective. Similarly, take another one- Sam is an honest boy, here also ‘honest’ describe the quality of the boy. I think now you clear to spot out an adjective.




Take a close look in this Infographic
Infographic on adjective




Hi, So in this lesson we discuss Adjective. First of all What is an adjective? What are types of them and their example, I think examples are always helpful for understanding the proper usage.

So I designed this topic for you to understand clearly with examples. Hope you like this-

There are two classes of the adjective:

  1. Descriptive
  2. Determiner

POSITION OF ADJECTIVE:

Descriptive adjectives are used both predictively and attributively and Determiner adjectives are used only before Noun.

For example,

  1. He is an honest boy. (Attributive use)
  2. The boy is honest. (Predicative use)

Here the sense or meaning of the sentence is the same, but the first one is for attributive use and the second one for predicative use.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF ADJECTIVE:

Types of Adjectives

Adjectives are classified into the following types:

  • PROPER:

This is made from proper nouns. For example- The Asian style, Punjabi dish.

  • QUALITY:

It indicates the quality of a noun or pronoun/equivalent. For example- A good proposal, A great idea etc.

  • QUANTITY:

This indicates the quantity of a noun or pronoun or equivalent

For example- Much advise, A little water etc.

  • NUMBER (Numeral adjective):

Adjectives of a number indicate the number of nouns/pronoun/equivalents. For example- Five boy, Two girls, several things etc.

  • DEMONSTRATIVE:

This demonstrates indicates a noun/pronoun or equivalent

For example- This boy, that girl, these books etc.

  • DISTRIBUTIVE:

To particularize or indicates every member of a group individually it is used. For example- each boy, every book, any man etc.

  • INTERROGATIVE:

The ‘wh’ word used before a noun is called Interrogative adjective.

For example- Which book? Whose book?

  • POSSESSIVE:

This indicates relation or possession with a specific noun.

For example- My father, your friend, his books etc.

SOME OF THE ADJECTIVES THAT WE USE IN DAILY LIFE

  • Quality- Ugly, heavy, dry, good, red
  • Demonstrative – This, that, these, those
  • Quantitative- Some, any, no, little
  • Numerical – Few, many all, several, one, first
  • Interrogative- Which, what, when, who, whose
  • Possessive- My, our, your, her, his, its, their
  • Present/past participle- A moving car, a burnt man, tiring journey
  • Relative- Who, which, that
  • Emphatic- Own, very, such, same
  • Proper- American, Asian, Indian
  • Exclamatory – What, which, How

So now we are learning how to find a difference between Adjectives and Pronouns because the same sense is used for both adjectives and pronoun, it is quite easy. let me show you the difference

Demonstrative adjectives and Demonstrative pronouns

  1. That is my book. So here ‘That’ is Pronoun
  2. Please get me that book. And here ‘That’ is Adjective

Distributive adjectives and Distributive pronoun

  1. Either boy has stolen my bicycle. Here ‘either’ is used as an adjective.
  2. I do not like either of the sisters. And here ‘either’ is used as a pronoun.

Possessive adjectives and Possessive pronouns

  1. This is my book. ‘My’ is used as an adjective.
  2. This book is mine. ‘Mine’ is used as a pronoun.

Though the meaning of both sentences is the same.

So, you see that changing the position of ‘my or mine’, it will use as Adjectives and pronoun as well.

Now I discuss how Nouns can be written as adjectives, I will give you some examples of that which can help you to get some idea about this-

Adjective and Noun forms

Rules of Adjective

Rule 1

An adjective is used when the quality of a noun and pronoun rather than the action of a verb is expressed.

An adverb is used to modify the action of a verb, an adjective, an adverb.

For example,

  1. She is a skillful dancer(quality)
  2. She dances skillfully(action)
Rule 2

The words given below are linking verbs.

Some verbs are not modified by an adverb. ‘Be, become, seem, appear, taste, smell, grow, keep, look, make’ etc.

For example,

  1. I feel sick
  2. Priyanka is smart
Rule 3

There are Some adjectives which don’t admit of any comparative and superlative degree. such adjectives denote absolute position.

‘Perfect, unique, ideal’ chief, universal, extreme, complete, entire, excellent, absolute, impossible, eternal, supreme’ etc.

For example,

  1. I have never seen a more complete book on General Studies. (drop ‘ more’)
  2. Happiness is the chiefest aim of mankind. (use ‘chief’)
  3. How can divided India become the most Supreme Power? (remove ‘ the most ‘)
Rule 4

The comparative adjectives such as ‘Prior, junior, senior, superior, inferior, prefer, preferable, elder’ etc are followed by ‘to’ instead of ‘then’.

Nor are they used in comparative degree.

For example,

  1. He is senior than me in service. (use ‘to’ in place of ‘then’)
  2. Lemon juice is preferable than tea. (use ‘to’ in place of ‘then’)
  3. My sister is elder than me by 2 years. (use ‘to’ in place of then)
  4. She prefers coffee rather than tea. (‘Rather than’ in place of ‘to’ is correct)
  5. She is comparatively smarter than her husband. (use ‘smart’)
  6. She is more senior to her boss in service. (remove ‘more’)
  7. Milk is more preferable to tea. (remove ‘more’)
Rule 6

When two adjectives qualify the same noun, both the adjectives should be expressed in the same degree.

For example,

  1. He is the most active and energetic social worker in our club. (use ‘most’ before ‘energetic’)
  2. She is both cleverer and intelligent than her sister. (use ‘more’ before ‘intelligent’)
Rule 7

Ordinal is placed before a numerical adjective.

For example,

  1. You must study the two first chapter of the book (use ‘the first two’)
  2. The two or three lessons of your book are worth reading. (use ‘the last two or three’)
Rule 8

The comparative adjective ending in ‘er’ [ i.e. cleverer] should be used as ‘more clever’ while comparing the two qualities of one and the same thing for a person

For example,

  1. She is cleverer than honest (use more clever)
  2. She is more clever than her sister (use cleverer in place of more clever)
Rule 9

The expression ‘these’ and ‘those’ should not be used with singular noun ‘kind’, ‘type’ and ‘sort’

For example,

  1. I will not do this kind /sort of acts (use ‘this kind/sort’ for ‘these kind/sort’)
  2. This type of articles are not allowed into the hall (use ‘is’ for ‘are’)
Rule 10

Note carefully the use of ‘other’ and ‘else’ in the comparative and superlative degrees.

For example,

  1. She is a best teacher (use ‘a very good teacher’)
  2. He is better than anybody in the class (use ‘anybody else’)
  3. Her shirt is cheaper than you (say ‘yours/ your shirt’)
Rule 11

The use of ‘all, both and whole’ as adjectives

  • Place ‘the’ after ‘all’ and ‘both’ when used as adjectives for plural nouns. But ‘the’ is used before ‘whole’

For example

  1. All the students were present (correct)
  2. Both the girl sleep soon (correct)
  3. Whole country is suffering from drought (say ‘the whole’)

For example,

  1. My all efforts ended in smoke (say ‘all my’)
  2. Both my friends are honest (correct)
Rule 12

‘Either, neither, only, both, even, but also’ should be placed immediately before the words they emphasize. (qualify/ modify)

For example,

  1. Neither she is intelligent nor honest (use ‘neither’ before ‘intelligent’)
  2. Her sister and her brother both living with her (use ‘both’ before ‘her sister’)
Rule 13

Comparison of weight, quantity, and number.

No comparison is implied in the following sentences when there is time used for comparison. so positive degree is used.

For example,

  1. My book is two times cheaper than you (say ‘as cheap as’)
  2. Your income is many times higher than John’s (incorrect, say ‘as high as’)

But we use comparative degree when the sentence is without time

Rule 14

The order of adjectives qualifying a noun is

size – shape – age – color – nationality – material – noun

For example,

  1. A large glass room.




Adjectives exercises

Point out the adjectives in the following sentences and state which class is of them belongs to –

  1. Most boys are fond of sweets
  2. The wise old man supported by the young boy
  3. The good boy obeys his parents
  4. I give the poor man some rice and a cloth
  5. Few men can raise such a heavy load
  6. Which boy did it?
  7. The cruel King caused great suffering to his people
  8. I told the whole story to my aged mother
  9. She is the first girl of the class
  10. She has a soft heart and cannot stand such a painful sight

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